Saturday, October 11, 2014


Philippians 3:4-14[1]
I’m going to share with you another aspect of myself today. When I was growing up, I was considered the “golden boy.” I didn’t think of myself that way, but apparently a lot of other people did. I was always at the top of my class. I never really excelled at sports, but in pretty much everything else, school, music, scouts, church, I was a rising star. And I continued to rise through college and seminary. After my Ph. D., I had a Fulbright scholarship to study at one of the most prestigious universities in the world, with one of the most famous New Testament scholars in the world. When I started teaching at the age of 31 as one of the youngest professors at the largest seminary in the United States, my Dean remarked that I single-handedly raised the IQ of the faculty. I really doubt that, but that’s what he said.
And yet, for all the appearance of success, I was incredibly unhappy. There were lots of reasons for that, none of which had to do with the goals I had set for myself. They were worthy goals, they were honorable achievements. But they were my achievements. I think it’s common for people who strive to achieve all they can to find that when they reach their goal, it leaves them feeling profoundly empty. And like me, when we experience that shocking emptiness we tend to go into panic mode. We try to “make” things work out the way we expected. We try to “fix” whatever may have gone wrong with the plan, which was that when we succeeded at achieving our goals, we would be happy. But no matter how hard we try, when we place all of our worth into what we achieve in this life, we usually find ourselves emotionally and spiritually bankrupt.
I think Paul was reflecting something of that experience in our lesson for today. It may be hard for us to understand his list of all his achievements, because they belong to a different day and time. But in essence, Paul was saying he came from an elite family, he attended the finest prep school, he knocked the top out of his test scores, made it into an Ivy League school, and graduated at the top of his class. He was a “golden boy” to those who watched him grow up. And among the leadership of the Jewish people, he was known as a rising star.[2]
It’s important for us also to recognize that there was nothing inherently wrong with Paul’s achievements. They were all noble and honorable as well. But they were his achievements. [3] When he met Christ everything changed; in comparison with the amazing gift of new life through faith in Jesus Christ, Paul says that he counted everything he once saw as an advantage as a loss.[4] In fact he uses much stronger language than that. The holy Apostle himself says that in comparison with knowing Christ his previous achievements he now considered as refuse, filth, or as the KJV so bluntly translates it, as dung!
Part of what we have to understand here is that Paul is in the middle of a serious debate about what constitutes true faith. Other Christian preachers in Paul’s day were demanding that Gentile converts first had to convert to Judaism before they could truly embrace the Christian faith. To some, that might have seemed logical. After all, the Scriptures of the Law and the Prophets served as the foundation not only for the teachings of the Apostles, but also of Jesus himself.
And yet, I think Paul knew by personal experience the major pitfall with that kind of approach. As one contemporary preacher puts it: “salvation does not rest with us but with God.”[5] Paul does not disparage the teachings of the Hebrew Bible, neither here nor anywhere else. But I think Paul knew what it was to do one’s best to fulfill all the expectations and yet to find that seeking your life in those self-achievements is ultimately a hollow victory.
The reason he knew this was because he had discovered a whole new way of life centered in faith in Christ. In this new relationship he found the fulfillment he could never find on his own. And it came to him purely as a gift from God, not as something he had reach for or work hard enough to achieve. In comparison with the incalculable gain he found in Christ, Paul could write the word “bankrupt” across his whole previous history of achievements, as worthy as they may have been.[6]
That’s the way life works. When we accept it as a gift, we find the joy and peace we’ve always been looking for. When we go out and try to force life to work out the way we planned, we only make ourselves miserable (and perhaps those around us). To some extent, this Scripture lesson cuts against the grain of what we’re taught. We’re supposed to do our best, to rise as high as we can. And in fact, there’s nothing wrong with seeking to do well. but we have to understand that if we derive our sense of worth in life from what we achieve by our own efforts, we will find ourselves just as bankrupt as St. Paul did.
That especially includes the notion that we somehow “earn” God’s favor by our diligence in the Church.[7] We cannot make our service in the Church into our own “stairway to heaven.” Only God’s gift of life through faith in Jesus Christ can truly satisfy the emptiness and the longing we all experience at times. Only the love of God poured out in Jesus Christ through the Holy Spirit can heal our spiritual bankruptcy. And the good news is that all we have to do is to let go our pipe dreams and accept that wonderful gift of new life to find the peace and joy we’ve always wanted.[8]

[1] © 2014 Alan Brehm. A sermon delivered by Rev. Dr. Alan Brehm  on 10/5/2014 at Hickman Presbyterian Church, Hickman, NE.
[2] Cf. Richard B. Hays, “Eyes On the Prize,” The Christian Century (Mar 11, 1992): 293.
[3] Cf. Fred Craddock, Philippians, 55: Paul does not disparage his Jewish heritage; in fact, in  many cases he speaks positively about it. But as good as it all was, “the law was not intended to be and is not the means by which one stands acceptable before God.”
[4] Cf. Craddock, Philippians, 58: “Paul does not extol the virtues of his new life in Christ by a deprecating description of his life in Judaism. ... Paul does not say Judaism is worthless, that it is refuse (garbage, excrement), that intrinsically that way of life is of no value. What he is describing is his consuming desire to know Jesus Christ, to be in Jesus Christ, to have that righteousness which is God’s gift to the one who believes; and for the surpassing worth of that, he counts gain as loss.”
[5] Cf. Craddock, Philippians, 55: “Justification by law would annul the grace of God and put the spotlight on human achievement ... . The point is, salvation does not rest with us but with God.” Cf. also Karl Barth, Church Dogmatics, 4.1:531-32.
[6] Since Krister Stendahl’s article, “The Apostle Paul and the Introspective Conscience of the West” Harvard Theological Review 56 (1963) 199-215, many scholars have debated whether Paul had a “conversion” at all. As Katherine Grieb points out in “‘The One Who Called You ...’ Vocation and Leadership in the Pauline Literature,” Interpretation 59 (Apr 2005): 157-58, Paul did indeed experience a conversion, if not in the same manner we may have imagined it. She says, “Violently zealous prophets like Moses, Elijah and Phinehas may have been role models for Paul prior to his conversion. ... Everything of which he had been so certain now had to be reconfigured in light of the crucified and risen Messiah. ... Paul's own vocation or call to be an "apostle to the Gentiles" introduced him to a deeper and more challenging way of being Israel among the nations. This way renounced violence and worked to build intentional communities that followed the pattern of the crucified and risen Lord who had commissioned Paul to preach the gospel to the Gentiles. Paul is still very much within the prophetic tradition—but now he is following the model of the prophets Isaiah and Jeremiah.”
[7] Cf. Morna Hooker, “The Letter to the Philippians,” New Interpreters Bible XI:531: “In spite of Paul's contrast between the righteousness of his own that he has abandoned and the righteousness that comes in Christ, it is all too easy for Christians to cling to what they regard as their own righteousness. We assume that our faithful attendance at church, our Christian conduct and adherence to moral principles, deserve some special consideration from God and constitute some special claim on God.”
[8] Cf. Ellen Babinsky, “Philippians 3:7-15,” Interpretation 49 (Jan 1995): 71: “Paul tells us that we are in Christ in whom, through faith, is our only righteousness, God's righteousness. Indeed, Christ Jesus has already made us his own through his death and resurrection. We can be found in Christ because Christ has bound us to himself. Because Christ has already made us his, we can struggle to live with God.”

Saturday, October 04, 2014

Forgetting Ourselves

Forgetting Ourselves
Philippians 2:1-13[1]
I find it interesting that the people who study social trends in our culture identified the generation that came of age in the 1980’s as the “me generation.” After the oil shortages of the late 70’s ended, the decade of the 80’s was a time of unprecedented prosperity for many in our country. What were once luxuries became necessities. More and more homes had microwave ovens and personal computers. Cars became increasingly more “loaded” with features, which also “loaded” the price tag. For the first time, “Upward Mobility” became clearly visible, as couples with two careers and no children began buying cars and houses that were more expensive than anything their parents ever dreamed of owning. There were a lot of people living “Life in the Fast Lane.”[2]
And yet, I’m not sure calling that age group the “me generation” is fair. Yes, it was an age of excess, but I think to some extent they got a bad rap. It seems to me the truth is that every generation has its own version of self-serving behaviors. We may not acknowledge that our actions are self-serving, even to ourselves. But the sages and prophets throughout the centuries have been able to see through our disguises and have pointed out that being self-serving is fundamental to the nature of what it means to be human. They’ve done so, and they’ve called us to a different way of living, a way defined by setting aside our selfish obsessions and serving others.
I believe that’s a major part of what St. Paul was telling the believers at Philippi in our lesson for today. He used the example of Jesus humbling himself, emptying himself, ultimately giving up his life for us all as the pattern for the kind of “mindset” that defines the Christian life.[3] And on the basis of Christ’s example, he called those who professed to follow him to “work out your own salvation with fear and trembling” (Phil. 1:12). That may sound strange to those of us who are used to hearing that salvation is a gift from God. But I think what St. Paul had in mind was that our salvation is a process by which we are continually being conformed to the character that Jesus Christ exhibited in his life.
If you’re wondering what that looks like, I think Paul answers that question at the very beginning of the lesson. I like the way Gene Peterson puts it in The Message: “If you’ve gotten anything at all out of following Christ, if his love has made any difference in your life, if being in a community of the Spirit means anything to you, if you have a heart, if you care--then do me a favor: ... Don’t push your way to the front; .... Put yourself aside, and help others get ahead. ... Forget yourselves long enough to lend a helping hand” (Phil. 2:1-4). When you hear it that way, it sounds like quite a challenge!
So, if the sages and prophets are right in pointing out that we all are fundamentally self-serving, then how do we accomplish this feat of “forgetting ourselves,” or “putting ourselves aside”? It might seem like that kind of conversion, a transformation that runs to the very core of our being, would be impossible for us to achieve. Who of us ever really ever gets past our selfishness? And yet, even in the midst of the challenge Paul proposes, he reminds us that “it is God who is at work in you, enabling you both to will and to work for his good pleasure” (Phil. 2:13). Or as the Contemporary English Version puts it: “God is working in you to make you willing and able to obey him.” In other words, salvation is still something God does in us, even when it comes to “forgetting ourselves” and serving others. It is God’s marvelous and mysterious work of “conforming us to the image of His Son” (Rom. 8:29).[4]
And yet, even though this is God’s work in us, we still have a part in “working out our own salvation.” Some call our part in this ongoing conversion process “becoming what you are in Christ.”[5] Or as another translation puts it, this is a matter of “putting into action God’s saving work in your lives” (Phil. 2:12, New Living Translation).  It is always true that salvation is a gift that comes from God’s grace and mercy. But at the same time it is also true that we have to respond to God’s grace.[6]
Again, if you’re wondering what it means to “put into action God’s saving work in your life,” then I think we have to go back to what St. Paul’s point was in the beginning. He calls us all to “put ourselves aside.” He calls us all to move beyond the selfishness that is our fundamental nature. He calls us all to get past our own self-serving behaviors. And I think the essential clue to how we do that is found in his description of what Christ did. St. Paul says that he “emptied himself” (Phil. 2:7). That might make it as clear as mud for many of you. Just how does one “empty oneself”? In Jesus’ case, he did so by surrendering his rights and claims and giving his life for us all.[7]
I think that the key to all of this is a matter of surrender.[8] At some point in life, if we’re going to get past our inherent selfishness, we have to surrender. We have to surrender what we think we want out of life. We have to surrender the willfulness of thinking we should get our own way. That opens up the door for us to be grateful for life as it is. It makes it possible for us to be thankful for the new life God is working out in us continually. And it seems to me that when we become grateful people, then we can follow Christ’s example in the way we live and interact with those around us. Then we can “put into action God’s saving work in our lives.” Then we can “forget ourselves” and serve others.

[1] ©2014 Alan Brehm. A sermon delivered by Rev. Dr. Alan Brehm on 9/28/2014 at Hickman Presbyterian Church, Hickman, NE.
[2] For further details, see the Wikipedia article, “Me Generation”; The phrase “Life in the Fast Lane” is the title of a song recorded by The Eagles on the album “Hotel California,” Asylum Records, 1976
[3] Cf. Karl Barth, Church Dogmatics, 2.1:517; 4.1:635.  Cf. also Jürgen Moltman, The Church in the Power of the Spirit, 103, where he describes this in terms of “selfless service” that follows the example of Jesus’ sacrifice. See also Morna Hooker, “The Letter to the Philippians,” New Interpreters Bible XI:499, where she points out that this kind of humility was not viewed as a virtue in the Greco-Roman world, but rather as a kind of servility.
[4] Cf. Dietrich Bonhoeffer, Discipleship (DBW 4), 282: “To those who have heard the call to be disciples of Jesus Christ is given the incomprehensibly great promise that they are to become like Christ. They are to bear his image as the brothers and sisters of the firstborn Son of God. To become like Christ--that is what disciples are ultimately destined to become.”
[5] Cf. Morna Hooker, “The Letter to the Philippians,” New Interpreters Bible XI:499
[6] Cf. Hooker, “Letter to the Philippians,” NIB XI:512: in Phil. 2:5-11 Paul outlines “the gracious action of God in Christ, but that gracious action demands a response—what Paul elsewhere describes as ‘the obedience of faith’ (Rom 1:5). The Philippians are to complete what God has done by living it out in their own lives.”
[7] Jesus’ ultimate surrender came in facing his impending death with the prayer “Not my will but thine be done,” and by dying with the prayer, “Into your hands I commend my spirit,” both of which reflect ultimate trust in God. Cf. James L. Mays, Psalms, 144, where he paraphrases the latter prayer as “it is up to you, God, what becomes of me, and I am willing to have it so.” Cf. also Gerald F. Hawthorne, Philippians, 122: Jesus’ whole life “was characterized by self-surrender, self-renunciation, and self-sacrifice.” Cf. further Dietrich Bonhoeffer, Letters and Papers from Prison, 360.
[8] Cf. John Caputo, On Religion, 9, where he observes that our encounter with God moves us “beyond the sphere in which we have some mastery….” Cf. also Richard Rohr, Breathing Under Water: Spirituality and the Twelve Steps, 8:  “To finally surrender ourselves to healing, we have to have three spaces opened up within us--and all at the same time: our opinionated head, our closed-down heart, and our defensive and defended body.” Cf. further Paul F. Knitter, Without Buddha I Could not Be a Christian, 185-86.

Saturday, September 27, 2014

A Credit to the Gospel

A Credit to the Gospel
Philippians 1:20-30[1]
I think we all know people about whom we could say “He’s a credit to his school,” or “She’s a credit to her profession.” We usually talk that way about people who excel in their devotion and service to the community, or their school, or their profession. They are people you can count on to be there when others aren’t, and to do what they say they’ll do when others don’t. We think of them as role models--not only for the younger generation but also to some extent for ourselves. We all have our personal heroes. Desmond Tutu, who led South Africa from the violence of Apartheid to a peaceful Democracy, is one of my heroes. These are the people we look up to, and they seem to set the bar for what it means to fully realize our potential as human beings.
In our lesson from St. Paul for today, he uses an interesting phrase. He urges the Christians at Philippi to “live your life in a manner worthy of the gospel of Christ” (Phil. 1:27). Eugene Peterson, in his translation of the Bible called  The Message, renders it this way: “Meanwhile, live in such a way that you are a credit to the Message of Christ.” But St. Paul didn’t imply that this kind of life was only for a few exceptional individuals. He called all Christians to live in a manner that is a “credit” to the Gospel.[2]
You see, Paul was in prison at the time he wrote this letter, which meant that he was separated from Church at Philippi. And apparently that was difficult for him, because this was one of his favorite congregations. They had helped him in some of his darkest times, and he was deeply grateful to them for their support of his ministry over the years. And now, St. Paul wants to make sure that the congregation at Philippi continued to thrive.
I find it interesting to compare what the Scriptures say about thriving congregations with the strategies people propose in our day for thriving congregations. Some take the approach that “if you build it they will come,” and so they believe that a new building is what it takes. Others think it takes the “perfect pastor,” whatever that is! If you look back over the last few decades, it’s almost amusing to see the fads that have come and gone in the “church growth” industry. In the 90’s, “small group ministry” became the rage, and in some places it still is. The assumption is that if it worked for Willow Creek and Saddleback churches, it should work anywhere. In the 80’s the “answer” was apartment bible studies. And in the 70’s it was bus ministry--finding all the kids you can and bringing them to church on a school bus.
But when you look at the kinds of things St. Paul points to as essential for the church to thrive, we find a very different approach. He urges the church to thrive by cultivating the unity that is found in Christ (Gal. 3:28).  It is a unity that is the result of the Spirit’s presence (Eph. 4:3). And this perspective isn’t just something he mentions once in passing. It is found throughout his letters to the churches he served. Over and over again, Paul urges churches to thrive by cultivating their unity in the Body of Christ. In this context, he urges the Philippians to “stand firm in one spirit, striving side by side with one mind for the faith of the gospel” (Phil. 1:27).[3]
On the surface of things, it would seem that St. Paul urges churches to practice agreement in order to thrive. But the question in my mind is what kind of agreement he’s talking about. Many in our day assume that agreement equals sameness. In other words, we all agree because we all think the same things, we all hold the same opinions, we all take the same perspective on various matters facing the church. Or in other cases our agreement stems from an institutional uniformity that is guaranteed by an authoritative leadership or by a standardized organization.
But I don’t think that’s the kind of agreement St. Paul was talking about.  In our lesson for today, the only content that Paul wants the church to agree on is “the faith of the Gospel.” The fact of the matter is that Paul has a very strong belief not only in the unity of the body of Christ, but also in the diversity of that body.[4] Elsewhere he insists that we cannot all be the same and do the same things, otherwise the Body of Christ would lack what it needs to thrive. He points out how hard it would be for the church to function if every part were the same (1 Cor. 12:14-21).
It seems to me that the agreement Paul calls for is a spiritual unity.[5] There is no doctrine or institution that can fabricate the unity the Spirit naturally produces in the body of Christ when we’re living our lives “in a manner worthy of the gospel of Christ.” I think we do that when we are all moving in the same direction, serving the Lord and the Body of Christ as faithfully as we can. That kind of unity is much more important than whether we hold the same opinions. Our unity is found in our common bond in Christ, not in whether or not we agree on every point of doctrine or practice. Our oneness is found in the presence of the Spirit, not in complete agreement on specific strategies for moving forward.
We’re going to have times when we disagree on what we need as a congregation in order to move forward. The important thing in my mind is that we don’t let any of those differences divide us. One pastor friend of mine described his church’s approach to a controversial issue: “we are not of the same mind, but we are not divided.” It seems to me that when we can live out our lives together in this Christian community with this kind of attitude, then we are promoting the unity of Body of Christ. Then we will be demonstrating the unity that can only be found in Christ through the Spirit. Then we will be living in such a way that we are a credit to the Gospel.

[1] ©2014 Alan Brehm. A sermon delivered by Rev. Dr. Alan Brehm on 9/21/2014 at Hickman Presbyterian Church, Hickman, NE.
[2] Many scholars think that St. Paul’s use of the Greek verb politeuomai here indicates that he is talking about how the believers conduct themselves as citizens of Philippi. For example, cf. Gerald Hawthorne, Philippians, 69, 77. However, it seems to me that in this setting, the primary emphasis is on their life together as a community of faith, not their conduct as citizens of a particular city. So Morna Hooker, “The Letter to the Philippians,” New Interpreters Bible IX:496: “His meaning is, ‘Let your life as a community be worthy of the gospel of Christ.’”
[3] Cf. Jürgen Moltmann, The Church in the Power of the Spirit, 345: “unity is not merely an attribute of the church; it is the church’s task in the world as well.” 
[4] Cf. Isam E. Ballenger, “Ephesians 4:1-16,” Interpretation : “Participation in the Oneness overcomes barriers of doctrine and practice, race and ethnicity, culture and nationality, economic and educational status. Note that diversity remains, but it has been integrated in the one Spirit, joined in the one hope.”
[5] Cf. Jürgen Moltmann, The Passion for Life: A Messianic Lifestyle, 38. He describes the unity of the Body of Christ that is very different from uniformity or sameness: “A life which is worthy of the gospel ... liberates us to be ourselves and fills us with the powers of the Spirit. We are enabled to give ourselves up and trust ourselves to the leading of the Spirit. Then we are able to accept ourselves just as we are, with our possibilities and limitations, and thereby gain a new spontaneity. We are freed to live with God in the covenant of freedom.”

Saturday, September 20, 2014

Quarreling over Opinions

Quarreling over Opinions
Romans 14:1-12[1]
I don’t know about you guys, but when I take a look at our society, it seems to me that we’ve gotten really good at arguing with each other. I don’t mean that we have good and productive arguments by “fighting fairly.” It’s my impression that we’re quick to take offense, quick to get angry, and quick with a comeback that is demeaning or offensive. I guess I should really say that we’ve gotten really bad at arguing with each other! It seems that every significant issue facing our society at least potentially leads to a fight. In fact, as some have observed, our country may be more divided at this time than in any other part of our history--even the Civil War![2]
If you think that’s not the case, all you have to do is look at people’s opinions about the last two presidents. It seems there’s no middle ground: people despise one, insisting that he brought our country to ruin, and they respect the other, and think he took our the country in the right direction. But whichever side of that divide you’re on, all someone has to do to make your blood boil is mention a name and express an opinion different than yours. We’ve gotten to the point where we can’t even express different opinions without getting hostile toward one another.
I think part of the reason for this is fear. We’re more afraid now than perhaps ever before. We’re afraid because the things we used to count on for security in life seem to have evaporated. And we’re afraid because the forces that control our lives seem so much bigger than they once did. And all that fear converts into hostility. And as much of a “techie” as I am, I’m afraid social media like email and Facebook have only poured fuel on the fire. When you get on the internet, there’s a false feeling of anonymity that induces us to say things we’d never dream of saying in person. And so the divisiveness and the arguing continue, and they just make the hard feelings worse.
But in our lesson from St. Paul for today, the Apostle tells us that it ought not be so, especially in the Body of Christ. We might be tempted to think that the church in the days of the New Testament was much more spiritual, and didn’t have arguments like we do in our churches today. But that’s not the case. In fact, in just about every book of the New Testament the Apostles had to deal with some kind of dispute or another. But as St. Paul tells Timothy, “wrangling over words ... does no good but only ruins those who are listening” (2 Tim. 2:14). He goes on to tell Timothy to “have nothing to do with stupid and senseless controversies; you know that they breed quarrels” (2 Tim 2:23). 
And so it should come as no surprise when St. Paul tells the Church at Rome that they are to avoid “quarreling over opinions.” But if you read between the lines, you might be surprised at the “opinions” about which he was urging them to practice tolerance. When he refers to some people having the faith to eat everything while the “weak” only eat vegetables, he’s referring to the way meat was processed and sold in that day.[3] A significant amount of the meat sold in the open-air market was left over from a sacrifice that was offered at a pagan temple that morning. So to eat meat in that context could be construed by some as participating in the worship of false gods! And yet others had a strong enough faith to recognize that all things come from God, and so they ate meat. And on an issue of this potential significance, Paul urges tolerance!
We might wonder how St. Paul could make such an apparently offensive compromise as to allow the eating of meat that had been used in the worship of a false god. To some in his day, he was essentially turning a blind eye to at least an indirect participation in idolatry.[4] How could he encourage behavior that some viewed as a violation of the command, “You shall have no other gods before me”? I think that at least part of the answer is that he realized that whether or not eating meat constituted the practice idolatry was a matter of interpretation, and therefore a matter of opinion. And St. Paul didn’t want the Body of Christ divided over matters of opinion. Rather, Paul urged that Christians take the attitude that, even when we disagree about significant issues, we all “belong to the Lord” (Rom. 14:8). And in case there is any doubt about whether we can all belong to the same Lord and disagree with one another, he makes it clear that we have no place passing judgment on other “servants of the Lord” (Rom. 14:4).[5]
So how do we translate this into our day and time, when we are debating matters like the Middle East, or gay marriage, or immigration policy. How are we who live together in the community of faith to relate to one another when we disagree over strongly held opinions? Part of the problem is that when we in the church are seen so visibly fighting with so much hostility toward one another, we invalidate the message of the Gospel in the eyes of those around us. It seems to me that in this community where we all “belong to the Lord,” we have to start with the conviction that our connection to one other in the Body of Christ supersedes all of our opinions.[6] Hopefully, we all seek to serve the Lord to the best of our ability. Ideally, we all strive to submit matters of conscience to God’s judgment.[7] It seems to me that means that there simply is no place for “quarreling over opinions” in the Body of Christ. Rather, this is a community in which mutual respect and love must always trump differences of opinion. [8]

[1] © 2014 Alan Brehm. A sermon delivered by Rev. Dr. Alan Brehm on 9/14/2014 at Hickman Presbyterian Church, Hickman, NE.
[2] See Dave Bryan, “Jerry Brown: California, Country Facing ‘Regime Crisis’ Similar To The Civil War,” CBS Los Angeles 10 April 2010; accessed at
[3] Many scholars suggest that part of the problem here was an expulsion of the Jews from Rome which some ancient historians recount. After some years, the Jewish population began to trickle back into Rome. However, whatever accommodations there may have been before the expulsion for the proper processing of meat according to Jewish food laws would likely no longer have been in place. This would have created a crisis for Jewish Christians who felt obligated to follow those laws. See James D. G. Dunn, Romans 9-16,  801, 810-11; Robert Jewett, Romans: A Commentary, 838.
[4] Cf. B. B. Blue, “Food Offered to Idols and Jewish Food Laws,” in Dictionary of Paul and his letters, edited by G. F. Hawthorne, R. P. Martin & D. G. Reid, 306-310.
[5] Cf. Paul J. Achtemeier, Romans, 215, where he observes that “The danger of self-righteousness lies in its tendency to make one’s own convictions the measure of the validity of the convictions of all others.” He also says (p. 217) in connection with the temptation to “set oneself up as judge” in the place of God that “The danger of self-righteousness is therefore closely allied to the danger of self-idolatry.” Cf. also Edgar Krenz, “Relationships Count,” The Christian Century (Aug 28, 1996): 811. He says that St. Paul “is not a weak-kneed Christian who has no standards. But his concept of judgment is shaped by his knowledge of the judge. Christians are ultimately responsible to their Lord.” See further Karl Barth, Church Dogmatics 2.2:725: Christians holding different opinions cannot judge each other “Because both are servants, each serving the Lord with their better or less good faith, each finding in the Lord his own Judge and Saviour. They cannot exclude each other when God has accepted both and will judge their faithfulness or unfaithfulness by His mercy.” Cf. also Jewett, Romans, 843.
[6] Cf. Achtemeier, Romans, 216: “Paul does not take sides on whether the ‘weak’ or the ‘strong’ are more correct. He is intent rather on meeting the threat to Christian unity posed by the attempts of one of the groups to make its convictions about conduct the sole and exclusive measure of true and faithful response to God’s gift of his Son. The advice to both groups is the same: Respect the convictions of the other group.”
[7] Cf. Achtemeier, Romans, 218, where he points out that Paul urges both tolerance on differences of opinion as well as the intention to “do everything one does to the honor of God.”
[8] It would seem that Paul would endorse the maxim, “In essentials, unity; in non-essentials, liberty; and in all things, charity.” On the history of this often-quoted phrase which is erroneously attributed to St. Augustine, see James J. O’Donnell, “A Common Quotation from ‘Augustine’?” accessed at quote.html and Hans Rollman, “The Pre-History of a Restoration Movement Slogan,” in Restoration Quarterly 39.3, accessed at rollmann.html